उपभोक्ता आंदोलन एक प्रकार है जो ग्राहकों के हितों की रक्षा करता है।

 उपभोक्ता आंदोलन
 उपभोक्ता आंदोलन

 

 

 उपभोक्ता आंदोलन का परिचय

उपभोक्ता आंदोलन उपभोक्ता संरक्षण सरकारी नियंत्रण का एक प्रकार है जो ग्राहकों के हितों की रक्षा करता है।

आज, ग्राहक पैनल, काला बाजार, मिलावट और सेवाओं कोई मानक सामान, उच्च मूल्य, बिक्री  Gyarnti  घिरा हर जगह, कम या ज्यादा जोखिम वजन लागू नहीं करता।

उपभोक्ता संरक्षण के लिए कई कानून बनाए गए हैं, जिसके परिणामस्वरूप उपभोक्ता आज सरकार पर निर्भर है। जबरन श्रमिक, जबरदस्त, आक्रामक, आदि राजनीतिक सुरक्षा प्राप्त करते हैं।

ग्राहकों को हर जगह मूर्ख बनाया जा रहा है क्योंकि वे उचित नहीं हैं। ग्राहक का आंदोलन यहां से शुरू होता है ग्राहक को खड़े रहना होगा और खुद को सुरक्षित रखना होगा।

 उपभोक्ता आंदोलन का इतिहास

अमेरिका में राल नादर ने उपभोक्ता आंदोलन शुरू किया। 15 मार्च 1962 को, नादर आंदोलन के कारण, अमेरिका कांग्रेस अध्यक्ष जॉन एफ केनेडी ने ग्राहक संरक्षण को जमा बिल को मंजूरी दे दी। इसलिए, 15 मार्च को अंतर्राष्ट्रीय ग्राहक दिवस के रूप में मनाया जाता है। यूएस कांग्रेस द्वारा पारित बिल में चार विशेष प्रावधान थे।

  1. उपभोक्ता सुरक्षा के अधिकार।
  2. उपभोक्ता को सूचना प्राप्त करने का अधिकार।
  3. उपभोक्ता को चुनाव करने का अधिकार।
  4. उपभोक्ता को सुनवाई का अधिकार।
  5. अमेरिकी कांग्रेस ने इन अधिकारों को व्यापकता प्रदान करने के लिए चार और अधिकार बाद में जोड़ दिए।
  6. उपभोक्ता शिक्षा का अधिकार।
  7. क्षति प्राप्त करने का अधिकार।
  8. स्वच्छ वातावरण का अधिकार।
  9. मूलभूत आवश्यकताएं जैसे भोजन, वस्त्र और आवास प्राप्त करने का अधिकार।

भारत में उपभोक्ता संरक्षण

टाटा भारत के आंदोलन की दिशा में उद्यमियों द्वारा उपभोक्ता संरक्षण के तहत 1966 ग्राहक अध्यक्षता में सामान्य व्यवहार में मुंबई में स्थापित किया गया था एसोसिएशन का संबंध है, और उसकी शाखाओं के प्रमुख शहरों में से कुछ के रूप में।

1 9 74 में, पुणे के बीएम जोशी ने ग्राहक पंचायत को एक गैर सरकारी संगठन के रूप में स्थापित किया। अधिकांश राज्यों में ग्राहक कल्याण संगठन स्थापित किया गया है।

इस प्रकार, ग्राहक की गतिविधियों जारी रही। उपभोक्ता संरक्षण कानून के 24 दिसंबर, 1986 को संसद द्वारा शुरू किए जाने के बाद देश में उपभोक्ता संरक्षण कानून अधिनियमित किया जाता है, प्रधानमंत्री राजीव गांधी और राष्ट्रपति में हस्ताक्षर किए हैं।

इन कानूनों ने 1 99 3 और 2002 में महत्वपूर्ण सुधार किए। इस व्यापक परिवर्तन के बाद यह एक आसान और आसान काम बन गया है।

यदि इस अधिनियम द्वारा पारित आदेश द्वारा धारा 27 के तहत, धारा 27 के तहत कारावास और धारा 25 के तहत कारावास पारित नहीं किया गया है।

उपभोक्ता

उपभोक्ता संरक्षण अधिनियम, 1 9 86 के अनुसार, एक व्यक्ति जो माल या सेवाओं का उपयोग करने के लिए खरीदता है वह उपभोक्ता है। विक्रेता इस अनुमति के साथ ऐसे उपकरण / सेवाओं का उपयोग कर ग्राहक भी है। तो, हम में से प्रत्येक के पास कुछ रूप में ग्राहक है।

उपभोक्ता के अधिकार

उन उत्पादों और सेवाओं के खिलाफ सुरक्षा का अधिकार जो जीवन और संपत्ति को नुकसान पहुंचा सकते हैं। 2. मूल्य, मात्रा, प्रभावशीलता, सटीकता, मानकों और उत्पादों और सेवाओं के मूल्य को जानना ताकि उपभोक्ताओं को अनुचित व्यापार प्रथाओं से संरक्षित किया जा सके।

3. जहां भी संभव हो, प्रतिस्पर्धी कीमतों पर विभिन्न उत्पादों और सेवाओं तक पहुंचने का अधिकार। 4. उपयुक्त मंचों पर खपत ब्याज की उपयुक्त उपयुक्तता का उपयोग करने के लिए सुनवाई और अधिकारों पर निर्णय लेने का अधिकार।

5. अनुचित या प्रतिबंधित व्यापार प्रथाओं या ग्राहकों के अनैतिक उत्पीड़न को सुनने का अधिकार। 6. ग्राहक शिक्षा का अधिकार ।

शिकायतें क्या-क्या हो सकती हैं ?

क्रेता / गलत / रोकथाम प्रणाली यदि आप खो / क्षतिग्रस्त, शॉपिंग बग या सेवा / पट्टे पर / पपड़ी कि अगर सेवाओं गिरावट या निर्माता आप कीमत से ज्यादा चार्ज किया गया है में आइटम मूल्य या लागू कानून या अपने मूल्य ही प्रदर्शित किए जाएंगे। इसके अलावा, यदि कानून का कोई उल्लंघन, जीवन और सुरक्षा के जोखिम जनता को बेचे जा रहे हैं, तो आप शिकायत दर्ज कर सकते हैं।

कौन शिकायत कर सकता है ?

शिकायत पंजीकृत स्वयं-उपयोगकर्ता या समिति पंजीकरण पंजीकरण अधिनियम 1860 या कंपनी अधिनियम, 1 9 51 या किसी अन्य लागू कानून के तहत पंजीकृत किसी भी स्वैच्छिक उपभोक्ता संगठन द्वारा दर्ज की जा सकती है।

शिकायत कहां की जाये

रिपोर्ट करने के लिए, यह माल के मूल्य या मांग पर निर्भर करता है। यदि राशि रुपये से कम है। यदि यह 20 लाख से कम है, तो इसे जिला फोरम में रिपोर्ट करें। यदि यह राशि 20 लाख रुपये से अधिक है, लेकिन यदि यह 1 करोड़ रुपये से कम है, तो राज्य आयोग के समक्ष और यदि यह एक करोड़ से अधिक है, तो राष्ट्रीय आयोग के समक्ष इसकी रिपोर्ट करें। सभी पते www.fcamin.nic.in पर उपलब्ध हैं।

शिकायत कैसे करें

शिकायत ग्राहक या शिकायतकर्ता द्वारा एक साधारण पेपर पर की जा सकती है। शिकायतों और शिकायतों और विवरणों से संबंधित शिकायतों और शिकायतों के बारे में अधिक जानकारी के लिए, शिकायत में वर्णित आरोपों का समर्थन करने के लिए इन सभी दस्तावेजों पर अधिकृत एजेंटों द्वारा भी हस्ताक्षर किए जाने चाहिए। ऐसी शिकायतों को पंजीकृत करने के लिए किसी भी वकील की आवश्यकता नहीं है। इसके अलावा, इस काम पर मामूली अदालत शुल्क लगाया जाता है।

क्षतिपूर्ति

ग्राहकों से बैज हटाकर, सामान, मुआवजे या हानि मुआवजे की आपूर्ति, पुनर्भुगतान मूल्य लौटाना। सेवाओं में त्रुटियों या त्रुटियों को कम करने के अलावा, पार्टियों को पर्याप्त न्यायिक विवाद दिए गए हैं और रियायत दी गई थी।

उपभोक्ता अधिकार सरंक्षण के कुछ कानून 

ग्राहकों, स्वयंसेवी ग्राहक एजेंसियों, केंद्रों या राज्य सरकारों के साथ, एक या अधिक ग्राहक कार्रवाई कर सकते हैं।

  • भारतीय टेलीग्राफ अधिनियम-1885,
  • पोस्ट आफिस अधिनियम 1898,
  • उपभोक्ता/सिविल न्यायालय से संबंधित भारतीय वस्तु विक्रय अधिनियम 1930,
  • कृषि एवं विपणन निदेशालय भारत सरकार से संबंधित कृषि उत्पाद
  • ड्रग्स नियंत्रण प्रशासन एमआरटीपी आयोग-उपभोक्ता सिविल कोर्ट से संबंधित ड्रग एण्ड कास्मोटिक अधिनियम-1940,
  • मोनापालीज एण्ड रेस्ट्रेक्टिव ट्रेड प्रेक्टिसेज अधिनियम-1969,
  • प्राइज चिट एण्ड मनी सर्कुलेशन स्कीम्स (बैनिंग) अधिनियम-1970
  • उपभोक्ता/सिविल न्यायालय से संबंधित भारतीय मानक संस्थान (प्रमाण पत्र) अधिनियम-1952,
  • खाद्य पदार्थ मिलावट रोधी अधिनियम-1954,
  • जीवन बीमा अधिनियम-1956,
  • ट्रेड एण्ड मर्केन्डाइज माक्र्स अधिनियम-1958,
  • हायर परचेज अधिनियम-1972,
  • चिट फण्ड अधिनियम-1982,
  • उपभोक्ता संरक्षण अधिनियम,
  • रेलवे अधिनियम’-1982
  • इंफार्मेषन एंड टेक्नोलोजी अधिनियम-2000,
  • विद्युत तार केबल्स-उपकरण एवं एसेसरीज (गुणवत्ता नियंत्रण) अधिनियम-1993,
  • भारतीय विद्युत अधिनियम-2003,
  • ड्रग निरीक्षक-उपभोक्ता-सिविल अदालत से संबंधित द ड्रग एण्ड मैजिक रेमिडीज अधिनियम-1954,
  • खाद्य एवं आपूर्ति से संबंधित आवश्यक वस्तु अधिनियम-1955,
  • द स्टेंडर्डस ऑफ वेट एण्ड मेजर्स (पैकेज्ड कमोडिटी रूल्स)-1977,
  • द स्टैंडर्ड ऑफ वेट एण्ड मेजर्स (इंफोर्समेंट अधिनियम-1985,
  • द प्रिवेंशन आॅफ ब्लैक मार्केटिंग एण्ड मेंटीनेंस आफॅ सप्लाइज इसेंशियल कमोडिटीज एक्ट-1980,
  • राज्य प्रदूषण नियंत्रण बोर्ड/केंद्र सरकार से संबंधित जल (संरक्षण तथा प्रदूषण नियंत्रण) अधिनियम-1976,
  • वायु (संरक्षण तथा प्रदूषण नियंत्रण) अधिनियम-1981,
  • भारतीय मानक ब्यूरो-सिविल/उपभोक्ता न्यायालय से संबंधित घरेलू विद्युत उपकरण (गुणवत्ता नियंत्रण) आदेश-1981,
  • भारतीय मानक ब्यूरो से संबंधित भारतीय मानक ब्यूरो अधिनियम-1986,
  • उपभोक्ता न्यायालय से संबंधित उपभोक्ता संरक्षण अधिनियम,
  • पर्यावरण मंत्रायल-राज्य व केंद्रीय प्रदूषण बोर्ड से संबंधित पर्यावरण संरक्षण अधिनियम-1986
  • भारतीय मानक ब्यूरो-सिविल-उपभोक्ता न्यायालय से संबंधित विद्युत उपकरण (गुणवत्ता नियंत्रण) आदेश

 उपभोक्ता आंदोलन का संक्षिप्त परिचय

एम. आर . टी . पी . –

आजकल, भ्रामक विज्ञापन के आधार पर कुछ vyaparim झूठे विज्ञापन बनाकर उपभोक्ताओं को शोषण करने के लिए में एक बढ़ती प्रवृत्ति है। कभी-कभी, असंभव चीजों की गारंटी होती है जिसे पूरा नहीं किया जा सकता है। विज्ञापित उत्पादों की गुणवत्ता नहीं है और उनकी कीमत में वृद्धि हुई है। अक्सर, अगर एकाधिकार लाभ लाभप्रद लिया जाता है, तो बहुत मूल्य है।

Monopolisa और restriktivha व्यापार अभ्यास अधिनियम, 1 9 9 6 है, जो केंद्र सरकार को लागू किया गया है उसी के शोषण की रक्षा के लिए, अल्पकालिक है, एमआरटीपी अधिनियम कहा जाता है। ऐसी शिकायत में, ग्राहकों को एमआरटीपी आयोग को सूचित करना चाहिए ताकि उन्हें शोषण और व्यापार के खिलाफ आवश्यक कार्रवाई से मुक्त किया जा सके। ग्राहक ऐसे मामलों को खाद्य विभाग को भी भेज सकते हैं।

उपभोक्‍ता संरक्षण अधिनियम – उपभोक्ता संरक्षण अधिनियम 1 9 86 को उद्योग के अधिकारों और हितों की रक्षा और उद्योग के शोषण की रक्षा के लिए डिजाइन किया गया था। इस कानून के अनुसार, कोई भी व्यक्ति जो इसके उपयोग के लिए माल और सेवाओं को खरीदता है वह उपभोक्ता है। खरीदार की अनुमति के साथ, इन वस्तुओं और सेवाओं का उपयोगकर्ता उपभोक्ता भी है।

Consumer Movement उपभोक्ता आंदोलन 

The consumer movement is an attempt to promote consumer protection through an organized social movement, which is in places led by several consumer organizations. It advocates for the rights of consumers, especially when those rights are actively violated by the actions of corporations, governments, and other organizations that provide products and services to consumers.

Consumer movements also generally advocate for increased health and safety standards, honest information about products in advertising, and consumer representation in political bodies.

Period

The terms “consumer movement” and “consumerism” are not the same thing.  The traditional use of the term “consumerism” is still used by contemporary consumer organizations to refer to advancing consumer protection and include legislators who pass consumer protection laws, regulators who enforce these laws, and educators who teach consumer policy.

, may include product testers that measure range. Co-operative organizations that supply products and services keeping in mind the consumer interest as well as consumer movement. The term “consumer movement” refers only to non-profit advocacy groups and grassroots activism to promote consumer interest by improving the policies of government or corporations, so “consumer movement” is a part of the discipline of “consumerism” is a subset.

In the 1960s lobbyists from the United States Chamber of Commerce and the National Retail Federation began using the term “consumerism” to refer to the consumer movement in a derogatory and antagonistic manner.

It was an attempt to discredit the General Movement and Esther Peterson’s role as Special Assistant to the President for Consumer Affairs. Since that time, others have confused the term “consumerism” with the concepts of commercialism and materialism.

Still, others use “consumerism” to refer to the philosophy that ever-increasing consumption of products is beneficial to the economy, and they compare consumerism with the modern term “anti-consumerism”—consumption.

Conceptual Foundation

Among those whose ideas formed the basis of the consumer movement are the following:

  • Thorstein Veblen to introduce the principles of advertising and the concept of conspicuous consumption
  • Ellen Swallow Richards, for Advancing Home Economics as a Science
  • Herbert Hoover, for Product Testing Demands and Technical Standards Requirements for Products
  • Upton Sinclair, To raise the public interest in consumer protection
  • Florence Kelly to lead National Consumer League
  • Ralph Nader, for raising public awareness of automotive safety.

The event that historians recognize as starting the consumer movement is Frederick J. Your Money Worth by Schlink and Stuart Chase.  The innovation that the publication of this book brought was the concept of product testing, which is the basis of the modern consumer movement.

By Region

United States

Beginning in the 1960s–70s, scholars began to recognize “waves” of consumer activism, and most academic research on the consumer movement narrowed it down to the “three waves of consumer activism”.

The first wave occurred in the early 20th century, the second wave in the 1920s and 1930s, and the third wave in the 1960s to 1970s.

Second Consumer Movement

There were several factors that contributed to the rise of the second consumer movement in the 1930s. Consumer activism in the early 1900s served as the foundation for the consumer movement that would run into the 1930s and 1940s.

[7] The Great Depression also played an important role in igniting consumer concerns. As household finances tightened and consumers began to examine their items more carefully, Americans began to realize their poor quality and fraudulent advertising.

American consumers rely on contemporary publications such as Your Money’s Worth and 100,000,000 Guinea Pigs to expose manufacturers to fraud and misinformation and to call for fair product testing.

[9] This gave rise to consumer publications such as Consumer Research and Consumer Association, which devoted themselves to research and product testing to inform the consumer public.

[10] As these studies and revelations emerged, widespread support for a consumer movement began to emerge. These included calls for higher food and commodity standards, consumer representation, and consumer education to teach responsible economic habits, as well as increased membership in consumer organizations, strikes, and consumer boycotts.

[11]  Even those who opposed the second consumer movement, such as producers and business professionals, Lawrence B. began to recognize the “rising consumer consciousness” of the era, in the words of Glickman. Widespread interest in consumer issues led to the passage of several pieces of legislation against quality over-protection and fraudulent advertising, such as the Tug well Bill of 1933, which gave rise to the Wheeler-Lee Act, and more than a dozen other bills. The Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act of 1938.

[12] Women’s groups in particular were influential in the lobbying during the drafting of these reform bills.

National Organization

Historians generally agree that there are two areas under the umbrella of the second consumer movement: “professional consumer organizations” and “social movement organizations.

” Consumers Research was the first, founded in 1928 by Frederick J. Sch link and Stuart Chase primarily to conduct product testing and determine the accuracy of contemporary advertisements.

Other types of consumer organizations focused primarily on the social aspects of the movement, bringing together a coalition of educated consumers to take action.

Unlike the majority of male scientists in organizations such as Consumer Research, who tested product quality in laboratory settings, female activists were the lifeblood of social organizations that organized vigorous protests and information campaigns.

A prime example of one of these consumer organizations is the League of Women Shoppers, founded in 1935 in New York City by a group of women affected by the meat boycott.

Middle and upper class urban women with high social status constituted the majority of the organisation.

[18] The women of the organization disseminated consumer information and encouraged the average citizen to be educated on labor as well as consumer issues.

They also deployed their own picket lines and “buyers’ strikes” as well as supported African American boycotts, such as the “Don’t Buy Where You Can’t Work” campaign that discouraged African American consumers from shopping at those businesses. who refused to hire black employees.

Another social organization was the General Federation of Women’s Clubs, which claimed membership of over 2 million in 15,000 clubs across the country. While his operations were not limited to consumer movement, he completed studies on consumer issues and created a framework for consumers to follow when purchasing and exercising consumer power.

Grassroots Organization

In addition to national organizations of the consumer movement, grassroots organization was common during the second wave of consumer activism that began in the 1930s. Women in particular played an important role in organizing grassroots around consumer issues.

The Great Depression created physical and economic conditions that encouraged women, especially working class housewives, to organize. [21] A prominent example of grassroots consumer organizing during this period was the 1935 meat boycott across the United States.

More than 10,000 housewives in Los Angeles began a boycott in March 1935 against the increased prices of meat, and similar boycotts spread across the country. Countries in cities like Detroit and New York.

Women formed committees, staged dharnas and pressured manufacturers to reduce prices and stop taking advantage of consumers, especially during difficult economic times.

In New York, some of the women involved in the boycott also founded the League of Women Shoppers in the same year. In many cases, pressure from these organized women led to a marginal reduction of meat prices to half the price, their activism allowing them to make a direct impact in the consumer market.

Initial Corporate Protest

During the recession of 1937–1938, public confidence in business was low and new criticism from consumer groups undermined confidence in advertising, the media, and branded goods. The idea that the public was “guinea pigs” on which corporations tested products was an idea that spread after the publication of 100,000,000 guinea pigs, and the industry sought to counter this and restore market confidence.
To demand the general concept of consumer regulation on the industry. In 1938, the Hearst Corporation ran an advertisement suggesting that people who bought goods that were distributed and advertised nationally were not “guinea pigs”, and from 1934 to 1939, Collier-Cowell executive Anna S tees Richardson had a Readers of Woman’s Home Companion visited as antagonists.
Advocate for the corporate-managed counterparts of consumer groups and consumer organizations.
 To compete with grassroots efforts, a number of other corporate interests also established their own consumer information centers, including the New York Herald Tribune’s product-testing institute, McCall’s Institute, which was explicitly referred to as the Consumer Information Center.
Consortium and Consumer Research, Sears Lectures Designed to Combat Consumer Outreach, NW Ayer & Son’s Institute on Consumer Relations, and Macy’s Bureau of Standards  Fulton Orsler’s McFadden Publications published stories in.
True Story and Liberty Joe The ad praised and condemned the consumer movement, and which George Sikorsky used as the basis for writing the “anti-guinea pig” book, The American Way of Life.
In response to the corporate movement’s trend in consumer regulation of the marketplace, Robert Stoughton Lind spoke for consumer advocacy, stating that “the entire consumer movement would end if there were current plans to establish manufacturing and retail trade unions. ” … consumer pressure groups [are] allowed to proceed uncontrollably.”
Eventually, industry and companies began to portray citizens and organizations that criticized corporations as un-American and communist. Conservative business interests attempted to correlate traditional American values ​​such as freedom with advertising, making communist threats against consumer organizations and the consumer movement as a whole.
Although these attacks were widespread, they did not succeed in convincing the general public that consumer activism was a communist conspiracy at least in the late 1930s. However, over the next two decades, the American public began to take “red-baiting” more seriously.

Africa

African economies are heavily influenced by multinational corporations and lending institutions that have encouraged export-oriented industrialization.
To become more attractive to investment in these circumstances, many governments are willing to endure adverse conditions such as anti-competitive practices, receiving imports of lower quality than acceptable in other markets, Tolerating misleading product claims, and tolerating the increased risk of hazardous waste.
 Most African countries implement the World Bank’s structural adjustment programs to increase their attractiveness for international trade.  The primary concerns for African consumers are balancing competing business practices to provide access to products while discouraging unethical business practices.
The problems of African consumers are linked to other social problems in the region, including extreme poverty, over-exploitation of natural resources, the African refugee crisis, unsustainable employment, and the legacy of the African slave trade for centuries.
Most of the members of the Southern African Development Community are members of the Common Market for East and Southern Africa.
In West Africa, countries are organized through the Economic Community of West African States.
  These and other organizations were founded to promote the growth of markets and improve quality of life, but organizations have some history of fragmentation, duplication of efforts, and destructive competition among such organizations.
The failure to resolve disagreements and integrate the missions of the different institutions, along with other infrastructure problems, contributes to the inhibition of intra-regional trade.
The consumer movement in Africa came into existence over time as a result of three factors: the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the control of markets by governments that are implementing structural adjustments, and the influence of external active organizations such as consumer international support community efforts. Promote consumer protection.
The declining influence of the Soviet Union left economies open to change, structural adjustments took government control out of markets, and active groups put community control into markets. Consumer organizations in Africa often call for global integration of foreign economies in Africa and increased external consumption of African goods to improve local markets.
They are often combined with human rights interests to promote democratization, economic development and women’s rights.
Markets in Africa do not inherently promote economic democracy to the extent it does in other markets because African markets often offer few choices, and many activist groups promote the right to access goods to democracy and economic the right to enjoy the benefits of development.
The Kenya Consumer Organization, the Consumer Council of Zimbabwe, the Housewives League in South Africa, and the Consumer Protection Institute in Mauritius are among the most prominent and oldest consumer organisations, and these and most others were established before the late 1970s. by women.
The organizations were a vehicle for providing women with more equal access to basic goods and services, and for socially connecting women.
Elsewhere, consumer groups often partner with women’s organizations.
In 1998, two Consumer International Conferences were held in Africa – an English conference in Nairobi in June with 100 participants from 11 African countries, and one in November with participants from 16 West and Central African countries. The French conference was in Dakar. Country.
The English language convention resulted in the publication of a declaration entitled “Consumers in Africa”.  The contemporary consumer movement is one of the fastest growing social movements in Africa today.
One indicator of this is membership of African consumer groups in Consumers International; In 1991, forty African countries had no representation in this network.
Environmental development action in the Third World cooperated with Consumer International until 1994, and by 1995, only 15 countries were not participating and many countries had made strong commitments to participation in organized networks. In 1994 50 delegates from Africa attended the annual Consumer International World Congress and, as a result, participated in the development of the Codex Alimentary, the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, and WTO issues.
Participation in Consumer International has otherwise raised the profile of various consumer groups, such as the Mali Association des Consommtres du Mali (ASCOMA) and the Senegalese Association de defense des e users de l’eau l’Electricite, les telecommunications et les services ( ADEETLS) ) both had representation in government policy making.

India

Scholars generally view the modern consumer movement in India from two perspectives – consumer activism and business self-regulation.
There is a tradition in India that says that the idea of ​​consumer rights began in the Vedic period, and in these narratives, the law encourages merchants to practice honesty and integrity in business.
Much of the discussion about India’s consumer activism begins with a description of the Indian independence movement.  Gandhi and other leaders at this time opposed taxation on basic consumer products, such as during the Salt March, and encouraged people to make their own goods at home, such as with the Khadi movement promoting spinning thread and To weave your own garments.
These actions were to raise awareness that consumer purchase decisions fund India’s source of political control. Gandhi promoted the idea that businesses have a trusting role in being responsible to customers, workers, shareholders, and their community.
In particular, Gandhi said that “a customer is the most important visitor to our premises. He does not depend on us. We depend on him. He is not an interruption to our work – he is its purpose. We are his. He is not doing him any favor by doing service. He is doing us a favor by giving us the opportunity of his service.”
United States consumer advocate Ralph Nader called Gandhi “the world’s greatest consumer advocate”, putting forward the concept that the commercial enterprise should serve the consumer and the consumer should expect to be served by the business.
Vinoba Bhave and Jayaprakash Narayan, two great proponents of Gandhi’s philosophy, and VV Giri and Lal Bahadur Shastri, contemporary Indian presidents and prime ministers, likewise themselves from the business community as an expression of responsibility for contributing to society.
expected to be regulated. These ideas were developed by some business leaders. In July 1966, some established the Fair Trade Practice Association in Bombay, which was later renamed the Council for Fair Business Practice.
Despite criticism from consumer activists that self-regulation would not provide adequate protection to consumers, it is now seen as a sincere effort to promote business self-regulation. From the perspective of consumer activism, the Planning Commission supported the foundation of the Consumer Union of India in Delhi in 1956 to be a national base for consumer interests.
 For various reasons, it was not effective in achieving its goals. Other organizations were established in the 1960s at various places in India but none were effective in achieving community organization.
Building on past failures, in 1966 nine female housewives in Bombay founded the Consumer Guidance Society of India (CGSI), one of India’s most important consumer organizations.
The most powerful consumer organization in India is the Consumer Education and Research Center (CERC), which was established in 1978 in Ahmadabad as part of the “Social Action Litigation Movement”.
In society at that time, courts began to recognize social workers and public interest groups as advisors on behalf of individuals or classes of people whose rights had been violated but who did not readily speak for themselves.
could. Since its founding, CERC has become one of the most successful consumer organizations in the developing world in terms of its achievements in litigation on behalf of consumers.
The Consumer Protection Act (COPRA) of 1986 was mostly the result of intensive lobbying by CERC and CGSI.
In 1991, economic liberalization in India fundamentally changed the Indian market by opening India to foreign trade and foreign investment. It was thought that the passage of the Consumer Protection Act
in India in 1986 would encourage consumers to stand up for their rights and create a huge number of disputes in consumer courts.
Although a consumer movement has not yet started in India, the existence of this act has inspired the creation of several consumer organizations across the country. The number of such organizations has more than doubled in the last few years, leaving 600-800 organizations in the voluntary sector now.
The movement did not flourish because not all organizations are active enough to make an impact, there has been hardly any integrated action that demonstrated their strength, and there has been no active consumer participation in the movements.
Consumers claim that a lack of consumer education makes them passive and apathetic, and blame consumer organizations. Most of the consumers in the country are also unaware of the existence of consumer courts where they place their complaints.
However, consumer rights organizations contend that they lack sufficient funds and blame the government for their inaction.
The author accepts the criticism that the Indian consumer movement is elitist and considers the need to focus on rural consumers, the important contributions organizations have made in laying the foundation for change, the need for consumer education, the need for specialists, special needs Consumer protection in relation to healthcare products, and assistance by voluntary health groups.

 

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